MULTILINGUAL GLOSSARY OF COMMON NAMES OF ANIMALS
Latin-English-Slovenian-German-Spanish-French-Croatian-Hungarian-Italian-Portuguese

VEČJEZIČNI GESLOVNIK IMEN ŽIVALI
Latinsko-angleško-slovensko-nemško-špansko-francosko-hrvaško-mad
žarsko-italijansko-portugalsko

Latinum-English-slovensko-Deutsch-español-français-hrvatski-magyar-italiano-português

doc. dr. Tomaž BARTOL (Tomaz BARTOL), dipl. ing. zoot.
Assist. Prof., Head of the Chair of Information Science, Agronomy Department
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Links:

MAGUS: Pan-European Dictionary of Common Names of Wild and Domestic Animals: Mammals and Birds in 53 languages of Europe
Animal nomenclature and terminology

PART 1 - 1. DEL
Mammalia-mammals-sesalci-Säugetiere-mamíferos-mammifères-sisavci-emlősök-mammiferi-mamíferos
PART 2 - 2. DEL
Aves-birds-ptiči-Vögel-pájaros-oiseaux-ptice-madarak-uccelli-aves
METHODOLOGY OF TERM SELECTION (in English)

PART 1: Mammalia-mammals

LAT

ANG

SLV

GER

SPA

FRE

HRV/SCR

HUN

ITA

POR

Arvicola terrestris

vole

voluhar

Schermaus (m.)

ratón de campo

campagnol

voluharica

pocok

arvicola

rato dos lameiros

Bos bison

american bison

bizon

Nordamerikanischer Bison (m.)

bisón americano, bisonte americano

bison d'amérique

američki bizon

amerikai bölény

bisonte americano

bisăo americano, bisonte americano

Bos bonasus

european bison, wisent

zober

Wisent (m.)

bisón europeo, bisonte europeo

bison d'europe

europski bizon

európai bölény

bisonte europeo

bisăo europeu, bisonte europeu

Bos bubalus

buffalo

bivol

Büffel (m.)

búfalo

buffle

bivol

bivaly

bufalo

búfalo

Bos primigenius

cattle, cow

govedo, krava

Rind (n.), Kuh (f.)

bovino, vaca

bovin, vache

govedo, krava

szarvasmarha

bovino, vacca

bovino, vaca

Camelus dromedarius

camel, dromedary

kamela, dromedar

Kamel (n.), Dromedar (n.)

camello, dromedario

chameau, dromadaire

deva, dromedar

teve, dromedár

cammello, dromedario

camelo, dromedário

Canis familiaris

dog

pes

Hund (m.)

perro

chien

pas

kutya

cane

cachorro, căo

Canis lupus

wolf

volk

Wolf (m.)

lobo

loup

vuk

farkas

lupo

lobo

Capra hircus

goat

koza

Ziege (f.)

cabra

chevre

koza

kecske

capra

cabra

Capra ibex

ibex

kozorog

Steinbock (m.)

íbice, ibex

bouquetin

kozorog

kőszáli kecske, vadkecske

stambecco

cabra alpina, cabra brava

Capreolus capreolus

roe deer

srna

Reh (n.)

corzo

chevreuil

srna

őz

capriolo

corço

Castor fiber

beaver

bober

Biber (m.)

castor

castor

dabar

hód

castoro

castor

Cavia aperea, Cavia porcellus

guinea pig

budra, morski prašiček

Meerschweinchen (n.)

cobaya, conejillo de Indias

cobaye

zamorče

tengerimalac

cavia

cobaia

Cervus elaphus

deer (red)

jelen

Hirsch (m.)

ciervo

cerf

jelen

szarvas

cervo

veado, cervo

Dama dama

fallow deer

damjak

Damhirsch (m.)

gamo

daim

jelen lopatar

dámvad

daino

gamo

Elephas maximus

elephant

slon

Elefant (m.)

elefante

éléphant

slon

elefánt

elefante

elefante

Equus asinus

donkey, burro

osel

Esel (m.)

asno, burro

ane

magarac

szamár

asino

burro, jumento, asno

Equus caballus

horse

konj

Pferd (n.)

caballo

cheval

konj

cavallo

cavalo

Erinaceus europaeus

hedgehog

jež

Igel (m.)

erizo

hérisson

jež

sün

riccio

ouriço

Felis domesticus

cat

mačka

Katze (f.)

gato

chat

mačka

macska

gatto

gato

Felis silvestris

wildcat

divja mačka

Wildkatze (f.)

gato montés, gato silvestre

chat sauvage

divlja macka

vadmacska

gatto selvatico

gatobravo

Glis glis, Myoxus glis

dormouse

polh

Schläfer (m.)

lirón

loir

puh

pele

driomio

lirăo

Lepus europaeus

hare

zajec

Hase(m.)

liebre

lièvre

zec

nyúl

lepre

lebre

Lutra lutra

otter

vidra

Otter (m.)

nutria

loutre

vidra

vidra

lontra

lontra

Lynx lynx

lynx

ris

Luchs (m.)

lince (m.)

lince (f.)

ris

hiúz

lynx

lince (m.)

Marmota marmota

marmot

svizec

Murmeltier (n.)

marmota

marmotte

svizac

mormota

marmotta

marmota

Martes martes

marten

kuna

Marder (m.)

martes

martre

kuna

nyuszt

martora

marta

Meles meles

badger

jazbec

Dachs (m.)

tejón

blaireau

jazavac

borz

tasso

texugo

Mesocricetus auratus

hamster

hrček

Hamster (m.)

hamster

hamster

hrčak

hörcsög

criceto

hamster

Mus musculus

mouse

miš

Maus (f.)

ratón

souris

miš

egér

topo

rato caseiro, ratinho, camundongo

Mustela erminea

ermine

hermelin

Hermelin (n.)

armiño

hermine

zerdav

hermelin

ermellino

arminho

Mustela nivalis

weasel

podlasica

Wiesel (n.)

mostela

belette

lasica

menyét

donnola

doninha

Mustela putorius

polecat

dihur

Iltis (m.)

turón

putois

tvor

görény

puzzola

toirăo

Mustela putorius furo

ferret

beli dihur

Frettchen (n)

hurón

furet

tvor

vadászgörény

furetto

furăo

Ondatra zibethicus

muskrat

pižmovka

Bisamratte (f.)

rata almizclera

rat musqué

mošusni/ bizamski štakor

pézsma

topo muschiato

rato almiscareiro

Oryctolagus cuniculus

rabbit

kunec

Kaninchen (n.)

conejo

lapin

kunič

nyúl

coniglio

coelho

Ovis aries

sheep

ovca

Schaf (n.)

oveja

gobeur

ovca

juh

pecora

ovelha

Ovis musimon

mouflon

muflon

Mufflon (m.)

muflón

mouflon

muflon

muflon

muflone

muflăo

Rattus rattus

rat

podgana

Ratte (f.)

rata

rat

štakor

patkány

ratto

rato, ratazana

Rupicapra rupicapra

chamois

gams

Gams (f.), Gemse (f.)

gamusa, rebeco, sarrio

chamois, isard

divokoza

zerge

camoscio

camurça

Sciurus vulgaris

squirrel

veverica

Hörnchen (n.)

ardilla

écureuil

vjeverica

mókus

scoiattolo

esquilo

Sorex minitus

shrew

rovka

Spitzmaus (f.)

musaraña

musaraigne

rovka

cickány

toporagno

musaranho

Sus domesticus

pig

prašič

Schwein (n.)

cerdo

cochon

svinja

sertés

maiale

porco

Sus ferus

wild boar

divji prašič

Wildschwein (n.)

jabalí

sanglier

divlja svinja

vaddisznó

cinghiale

javali

Talpa europaea

mole

krt

Maulwurf (m.)

topo

taupe

krtica

vakond

talpa

toupeira

Ursus arctos

bear

medved

Bär (m.)

oso

ours

medvjed

medve

orso

urso

Vulpes vulpes

fox

lisica

Fuchs (m.)

zorro

renard

lisica

róka

volpe

raposa

 

METHODOLOGY OF TERM SELECTION

We present a multilingual glossary or dictionary of common animal names. Besides the Latin scientific names we included the languages of the countries neighbouring on Slovenia (Austria (German), Croatia, Hungary, and Italy). We also included a few selected major international languages of European origins, such as English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The glossary comprises most domestic animals to be found in Europe, and also a few selected domestic animals from other continents. It also contains a few of such wild animals (birds and mammals) that are familiar to the inhabitants of Central Europe.

As common names we usually included such nouns (without an adjective) that generally denote a genus or even a family. Less frequently we considered a particular species. An attempt to include all potential species would exceed our capacities. Also, there exist in most languages quite a few synonyms pertinent to a particular species so it would be rather difficult to identify those that are the most relevant. However, as for the Latin names we always included the entire name of a "characteristic" species. In case of several species carrying the same noun we chose a species that is someway indicative of a genus or even a family, and can be uniformly and comprehensively intertranslated among different languages without the use of adjectives.

Examples:

For both hare varieties of the same genus (Lepus europaeus, Lepus timidus), e.g., we employed only the L. europaeus, and rendered it only under the name of genus (hare), that is without the adjecives of european (brown), mountain (arctic), in all respective languages.

In a few selected cases we used one common name that can in some languages though be applied to different genera. The same common name in English (mouse), German (Maus), Slovenian (miš), Spanish (rat?), etc. stands for genera Mus, Micromys, Apodemus. In French, however, the common names are different (Souris, Rat des moissons, Mulot, respectively). In this case we employed only one characteristic species, a house mouse, Mus musculus. On this example it is fairly obvious that it is sometimes rather difficult to maintain an absolute multilingual consistency. In naming animals we cannot rely on morphological characteristics: The term rat which in French stands for both black and brown rat (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus), is in this language assigned also to the tiny Micromys minutus, which is much smaller than most species of mice.

Sometimes there exists in most languages the same common noun for individuals of different species of the same genus. This is, e.g., the case with the Larus, or gull (seagull). The most common or "prominent" species, though, may sometimes in a particular language acquire a particular name as is the case with Larus canus or gavina, and Larus marinus or mugnaiaccio in Italian, where the gulls are in general called a gabbiano. In this case we still used the species of L. canus which we for the Italian data provided with both expressions.

It was rather difficult to uniformly intertranslate the names of these two ordres, especially the owls (Strigiformes). This group of birds comprises two families (Tytonidae, Strigidae) and several genera. Whereas the English language invariably employs the term owl this is not the case with other languages. Individual species do not intertranslate consistently. However, due to shared anatomical characteristics of these nocturnal birds of prey there exists in most languages an approximate common term which can be used to label all species in both families event though these birds are far from similar. To illuminate such lingual differences we present interspecific distinctions in a few selected languages:

LAT

ANG

SLV

GER

SPA

FRE

ITA

Asio otus

long-eared owl

mala uharica

Waldohreule

búho chico

hibou moyen-duc

gufo comune

Athene noctua

little owl

čuk

Steinkauz

mochuelo

chevêche

civetta

Bubo bubo

eagle owl

velika uharica

Uhu

búho real

grand duc

gufo reale

Strix aluco

tawny owl

lesna sova

Waldkauz

cárabo

chouette hulotte

Allocco

Tyto alba

barn owl

pegasta sova

Schleiereule

lechuza común

chouette effraie

barbagianni

In this case we presented in our glossary the specific terms whereby we included also the exact common name for each particular species. We also included the most general common name for the order (ordo) if possible. We employed those terms that are used in general dictionaries.

Some similar, if less pronounced, terminological characteristics can be observed in the order of Piciformes where there exists, e.g., one common Catalan, English, French, German, or Italian term, but two terms on the same level in Slovenian, Croatian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Spanish. Again we used the names for the particular species but also the approximate common name for the order.

LAT

ANG

SLV

GER

SPA

FRE

ITA

Dendrocopos major

great spotted woodpecker

veliki detel

Buntspecht

Pico picapinos

Pic ýpeiche

Picchio rosso maggiore

Dendrocopos minor

lesser spotted woodpecker

mali detel

Kleinspecht

Pico menor

Pic ýpeichette

Picchio rosso minore

Picus viridis

black woodpecker

zelena žolna

Grünspecht

Pito real

Pic vert

Picchio verde

Drycopus martius

green woodpecker

èrna žolna

Schwarzspecht

Pito negro

Pic noir

Picchio nero

With many animals, especially birds, we included also different species of the same genus, particularly with those species that possess some distinguishing characteristics and have thus acquired an individual name in the course of human-animal interactions. This is, e.g., the case with song birds (Passeriformes), and particular with some families of this order, such as the Corvidae where in most languages there exists a particular name for each species.

As was mentioned in the beginning we consistently used the common denominating nouns without the specific adjectives, where not necessary. However, we did use the adjectives in cases where an adjective in a selected language denotes a species that has a particular name in most other species. This was the case with the deer in English, -huhn in German, rato or ?uia in Portuguese, etc.

We compiled this simple glossary in order to rise awareness of the differences, but also similarities among the European languages of different linguistic groups. Both differences and similarities transcend the characteristics of a particular group. They also show the fluidity of a language as a way of communicating concepts and ideas. With this site we also hope to modestly contribute to better understanding among the speakers of different tongues.

We are sure we may have missed quite a few prominent animal kinds. However, as we intend to constantly revise the glossary we will very gladly accept your suggestions as to new names or modifications and corrections of existing terms. The proposals can be submitted to the electronic address below.

Tomaž Bartol: tomaz.bartol@bf.uni-lj.si 

home: ANIMAL NOMENCLATURE AND TERMINOLOGY

Ključne besede:

večjezični tezaver/tezavri, geslovnik/geslovniki, geselnik/geselniki, slovar/slovarji, glosar/glosarji, besednjak/besednjaki, terminologija, klasifikacija, nomenklatura, kmetijstvo, biotehnika, domače živali, divje živali, ptiči, sesalci

Key-words:

multilingual thesaurus/thesauri, dictionary/dictionaries, glossary/glossaries, vocabulary/vocabularies, wordbook/wordbooks, terminology, classification, nomenclature, agriculture, domestic animlas, wild animals, wildlife, birds, mammals


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