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The land
Other indicators
Agricultural sector
National agricultural policy
Land tenure
Rural Infrastructure
Seed sector
The land

Total area : 20 273 km2

The country has a short coastal strip on the Adriatic sea, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria and a combination of mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east.

According to Koeppen’s classification Slovenia has a temperate type climate on the west, close to the Adriatic Sea and a cold type of climate in the rest of the country.

Arable land and permanent crops occupy 285 000 ha, permanent pastures 502 000 ha and forests 1.1 million ha. Main crops are maize 44 401 ha, wheat 31 615 ha, potatoes 9840 ha, fruits 37 514 ha, vegetables 3941 ha and hops 1 803 ha.

Other indicators

Population (1998) 1 993 000 of which in agriculture 47 000 (2.3%)

GNP per capita (1998) $ 9780 (high income)

Agriculture Production Index: average for 1997-99 was 104.0 – (Net PIN base 1989-91= 100)

Value added of agriculture in 1998 as percentage of GDP was 4%

Average availability of calories per capita/per day 3 112 in 1995-97

Labour force participation ratio of women to men was 0.9 in 1998

Slovenia is the third largest exporter of the region for pears.

Agricultural sector

National agricultural policy

Slovenia’s economic policy has been shaped by the preparation for entry in EU. The Programme of Agricultural Policy Reform (1999-2002) serves as a framework for the harmonisation of EU and domestic policies, and the gradual reduction of trade protection and price regulation (e.g. the break-up of the state monopoly in the bread cereal market). The CEFTA agreement introduced duty-free and quota-free provisions for various items including durum wheat and oilseeds and preferential tariffs for wheat, barley, flour and selected vegetables and fruits. Slovenia is a member of EPPO.

Land tenure

The farm structure comprises of over 92 000 small and mostly part-time private farms (average of 3.5 ha) that own of lease about 92% of agricultural land and produce 75% of total agricultural output. The rest is produced by large agricultural companies on the remaining 8% of the land.

Rural Infrastructure

Financial constraints and lack of adequate institutional framework are delaying the structural adjustment of the agricultural sector, intended to raise agricultural productivity and incomes.

Seed sector

Slovenia has a long tradition of seed production and trade, particularly for cereals, maize and sugar beet. Soil and climate in the north east provide very favourable conditions to seed production. Breeding and research activity covers the mains crops, including potatoes and hops. Slovenia has acceded to the OECD Schemes for varietal certification (Herbage and Oilseeds, Cereals, Maize and Sorghum) and has applied to the scheme for beet.

All laws and regulations on seed from the former F.R. of Yugoslavia remained in force until replaced by new Slovenian laws and regulations. A new Seed Law was still pending adoption in 1999, whereas a new law on Plant Variety Protection came into force in February 1999. That law is harmonised with the UPOV Conventions and with Council Regulation (EC) N. 2100/94 on Community plant variety rights.

The Plant Variety Protection and Registration Office of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for ensuring that the procedure for the evaluation, registration and protection of new varieties is followed. DUS criteria must be met and the results of tests are evaluated by a Commission of Experts. Favourable decisions allow the inclusion in the Register of protected varieties with appropriate publicity.

Slovenia imports about 60 percent of its seed requirement. Most of the seed produced in the country comes from large farms (former state farms). The Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, in Ljubljana, carries out field inspections and quality control functions and has laboratories accredited with ISTA.

Slovenia has germplasm collections at the University of Ljubljana (55 species, 1097 accessions), at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia (40 species, 1088 accessions) and at the Institute of Hop Research and Brewery.