Total area : 20 273 km2
The country has a short coastal
strip on the Adriatic sea, an alpine mountain region adjacent to
Italy and Austria and a combination of mountains and valleys with
numerous rivers to the east.
According to Koeppen’s
classification Slovenia has a temperate type climate on the west,
close to the Adriatic Sea and a cold type of climate in the rest
of the country.
Arable land and permanent crops
occupy 285 000 ha, permanent pastures 502 000 ha and forests 1.1
million ha. Main crops are maize 44 401 ha, wheat 31 615 ha,
potatoes 9840 ha, fruits 37 514 ha, vegetables 3941 ha and hops 1
Population (1998) 1 993 000 of
which in agriculture 47 000 (2.3%)
GNP per capita (1998) $ 9780 (high
Agriculture Production Index:
average for 1997-99 was 104.0 – (Net PIN base 1989-91= 100)
Value added of agriculture in 1998
as percentage of GDP was 4%
Average availability of calories
per capita/per day 3 112 in 1995-97
Labour force participation ratio of
women to men was 0.9 in 1998
Slovenia is the third largest
exporter of the region for pears.
National agricultural policy
Slovenia’s economic policy has
been shaped by the preparation for entry in EU. The Programme of
Agricultural Policy Reform (1999-2002) serves as a framework for
the harmonisation of EU and domestic policies, and the gradual
reduction of trade protection and price regulation (e.g. the
break-up of the state monopoly in the bread cereal market). The
CEFTA agreement introduced duty-free and quota-free provisions for
various items including durum wheat and oilseeds and preferential
tariffs for wheat, barley, flour and selected vegetables and
fruits. Slovenia is a member of EPPO.
The farm structure comprises of
over 92 000 small and mostly part-time private farms (average of
3.5 ha) that own of lease about 92% of agricultural land and
produce 75% of total agricultural output. The rest is produced by
large agricultural companies on the remaining 8% of the land.
Financial constraints and lack of
adequate institutional framework are delaying the structural
adjustment of the agricultural sector, intended to raise
agricultural productivity and incomes.
Slovenia has a long tradition of
seed production and trade, particularly for cereals, maize and
sugar beet. Soil and climate in the north east provide very
favourable conditions to seed production. Breeding and research
activity covers the mains crops, including potatoes and hops.
Slovenia has acceded to the OECD Schemes for varietal
certification (Herbage and Oilseeds, Cereals, Maize and Sorghum)
and has applied to the scheme for beet.
All laws and regulations on seed
from the former F.R. of Yugoslavia remained in force until
replaced by new Slovenian laws and regulations. A new Seed Law was
still pending adoption in 1999, whereas a new law on Plant Variety
Protection came into force in February 1999. That law is
harmonised with the UPOV Conventions and with Council Regulation
(EC) N. 2100/94 on Community plant variety rights.
The Plant Variety Protection and
Registration Office of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible
for ensuring that the procedure for the evaluation, registration
and protection of new varieties is followed. DUS criteria must be
met and the results of tests are evaluated by a Commission of
Experts. Favourable decisions allow the inclusion in the Register
of protected varieties with appropriate publicity.
Slovenia imports about 60 percent
of its seed requirement. Most of the seed produced in the country
comes from large farms (former state farms). The Agricultural
Institute of Slovenia, in Ljubljana, carries out field inspections
and quality control functions and has laboratories accredited with
Slovenia has germplasm collections
at the University of Ljubljana (55 species, 1097 accessions), at
the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia (40 species, 1088
accessions) and at the Institute of Hop Research and Brewery.